Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi’s Biography
Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi, Astan Quds Razavi Custodian, was born in the holy city of Mashhad in 1339/1960. First vice presidency of the judiciary system, management of the country’s inspection organization, being the secretary of the staff of enjoying to right conduct and forbidding the evil, special attorney general for the clergymen by the Supreme Leader decree, membership in the management board of the assembly of experts, presidency of the supervisory council on IRIB, and representing people of the south Khorasan in the assembly of experts are some of his posts during his long term activities in Islamic Republic of Iran’s different arenas.
According to Astan Quds Razavi News Website, Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi’s biography is as follows:
Birth and Family
Seyyed Ibrahim Raeisi was born, in Mashhad’s Noqan neighborhood, in a religious family in 1339/ 1960. His father was one of the Shi’a clerics of the city and his mother’s father was also a clergy man. He is a Husseini Sadat (Prophet’s descendent) and he reaches to Imam Sajjad (A.S.) originally. He was five when his father passed away.
When finished with his Javadeyeh primary school, he continued his father’s way and entered seminary. At first, he entered Navab School and had a short time study there. Then, he went to Ayatollah Mousavi Nejad School to pass the introductory courses including: Literature, Logics, and rhetoric.
According to Ayatollah Mousavi Nejad’s tradition, he started to teach new students of the seminary when he was in his third year of school. His education at Ayatollah Mousavi Nejad School lasted up to 1354/1975 so that he decided, based on his older brother’s advice, to continue his education in the holy city of Qom.
When he entered the holy city of Qom, Feizieh and Dar al-Shifa Schools were shut by the Pahlavi regime so he decided to go to Ayatollah Boroujerdi School. In addition to study at Ayatollah Bourjerdi School, he also studied, under the supervision of Ayatollah Pasandideh, in another school which was directly managed by Imam Khomeini’s (R.A.) office and chaired by his brother.
During this time, he studied principle of jurisprudence with Ayatollah Marvi, Lemo’tin with Ayatollah Fazel Harandi, Rasael with Ayatollah Mousavi Tehrani, forbidden earnings with Ayatollah Douzdouzani, sale earnings with Ayatollah Khazali, options of earnings with Ayatollah Sotoudeh and Ayatollah Taheri Khoramabadi, and equality (Kefayeh) with Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Mohaqeq Damad.
In addition to acquiring a wide range of jurisprudence courses in Qom, he also attended the commentary on versified story and philosophy classes of Ayatollah Ahmad Beheshti. He also attended Ayatollah Seyyed Morteza Motahari’s recognition classes and Ayatollah Noori Hamedani’s Nahj al-Balaqeh courses.
Also, he participated in Qur’an interpretation courses of Ayatollah Meshkini and Ayatollah Khazali.
Political Arenas and Pre-revolutionary Struggles
His presence in Qom was coincident with Pahlavi regime’s last years. At that time and when Ettela'at Newspaper disrespected Imam Khomeini (R.A.) in its 1356/1977 articles, Raeisi attended most of the protests the beginning and destination of most of which were Ayatollah Boroujerdi School (Khan School) and homes of the grand Ayatollahs respectively. One of the most famous of these protests was the one held at Ayatollah Noori Hamedani’s home on Day 19, 1356/ January 9, 1978 in which tens of people were killed by Shah’s regime.
He was one of the revolutionary seminary students of the Khan School (the center of revolutionary movements when Feizeieh and Dar al-Shifa were closed).
Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi continued his fighting related to the imprisoned revolutionary scholars and he gradually got familiar with some prominent and distinguished figures such as Motahari, Beheshti, Mofateh, Hakimi, and others as he commuted between the houses of Ayatollah Seyyed Naser Husseini and Sheikh Hadi Marvi. He also took part in the strikes of Tehran University’s scholars when was present in Tehran.
After the Victory of the Islamic Revolution
Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Ayatollah Beheshti who was enjoying a deep attitude of governmental and administrative affaires held some courses for almost seventy seminary students of Qom whom he had recognized competent for some managerial responsibilities of the country. Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi was one of these seventy-person group.
The teachers of this intensive period which was held mostly in Ayatollah Motahari’s School were Ayatollah Beheshti, Ayatollah Khamenei, Hasan Ayat, Ayatollah Mousavi Ardebili, etc.
At the very beginning of the Islamic Republic’s lifetime, some bad news came from Masjed Soleiman which was a base for the opposition groups and Marxists, like some other border regions. For this reason, Imam Khomeini (R.A.) appointed Ayatollah Marvi, as his representative in this city, to fix the situation. Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi and a group of seminary students were invited to the city by Ayatollah Marvi to help him in cultural affairs and also handling the city affairs. Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi’s connection with the Inqelab court was started since that time.
After coming back from Masjed Soleiman, he established the political and ideological garrison of 0-2 in Shahroud and managed it for a while.
Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi entered the judiciary system in 1359/1980 when he was appointed as the assistant prosecutor of Karaj. A few months later, he was appointed as the prosecutor of Karaj by Ayatollah Ghodousi, that time’s attorney general of the revolution.
Karaj’s situation was very complicated as many people had immigrated to this close city to the capital and also as imposed war had made the political and security situation of the country very tense. For all these reasons, the city needed intellectual and revolutionary forces and also coordination with other officials which was perfectly conducted by Hujjat al-Islam Raeisi during this two-year period (1359-1360/ 1981-1982).
His success in managing Karaj’s conditions led the officials to appoint him as the attorney general of Hamedan in addition to that of Karaj’s attorney general. To manage the affairs of both of the cities better, he had to divide his time into two and travel between the cities during the week. This double responsibility lasted for three to four months so that he was introduced as the prosecutor of Hamedan and continued his job for three years, 1361 to 1363/ 1983 to 1985.
1364/ 1986 was the beginning of his activity in the capital when he was appointed as the deputy of Tehran’s prosecutor.
Passing three years since that time and in 1367/ 1989, Raeisi was specially attended by Imam Khomeini (R.A.) and received direct and special orders (1, 2, and 3), independent from judiciary system, to be able to deal with judiciary problems in some provinces including Lorestan, Kermanshah, and Semnan. Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi and Mr. Nayeri were also received special attention of Imam Khmeini (R.A.) and several important cases were given to them.
After the demise of Imam Khomeini (R.A.) and beginning of Ayatollah Khamenei’s leadership, Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi was appointed as the attorney general of Tehran by Ayatllah Yazdi, then chief of judiciary system. He was Tehran’s attorney general for five years from 1368/ 1989 to 1373/ 1995. In 1373/ 1995, he was appointed as the chief of the country’s inspection organization and was in office until 1383/2005.
Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi was the first vice president of the judiciary system from 1383/2005 to 1393/2015. He has been the attorney general of the country since 1393/ 2015. Receiving the special decree of the Supreme Leader, Raeisi is the special prosecutor for the clergymen, since 1391/ 2013.
Studying Concurrent with Different Responsibilities
Regarding his interest in education and not leaving the seminary discussions, Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi says, “Although being busy with revolutionary, cultural and judicial activities during the revolutionary struggles and after the victory of the Islamic Revolution were considered as a must for us, the sweetness of lessons and seminary discussions cannot be, for a seminary student, replaced with other things”.
Based on this belief, at the first year of working as the prosecutor of Karaj and while being accompanied by three other friends, he started to participate in a jurisprudence course which was taught by Ayatollah Modaresi. And to prevent the probable interference with his job, he held the class early in the morning.
He continued the same method when he returned from Hamedan to Tehran and in addition to early mornings, he had his self-studies in holidays. In this period, he passed Kharij principles with late Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hasan Marashi and Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi. He also passed Kharij Fiqh in the classes of late Ayatollah Mojtaba Tehrani. Also, since the beginning of Ayatollah Khamenei’s Karij Fiqh classes in 1370/ 1992, he was attending these classes for fourteen years and passed Jihad, retaliation, and forbidden earnings lessons in the Supreme Leader’s classes.
In addition to these contacts with seminary lessons, Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi have teaching seminary lessons in advance and intermediate levels since years ago, according to Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani and Ayatollah Mojtaba Tehrani’s recommendations. At the moment, Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi teaches rules of jurisprudence.
He has taught all the levels from introductory courses to Rasael and Makaseb (earnings) and end of sufficiencies in different seminary schools of Tehran such as Majd, Amir al-Momenin (A.S.), Imam Hussein (A.S.).
After getting his M.A., Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi participated, being encouraged by his professors such as Ayatollah Mara’shi in the Ph.D. entrance examination of Ayatollah Motahari University. After being accepted in the oral and written examinations, he entered the school and got his Ph.D. in jurisprudential principle. The title of his dissertation was “Conflict of outward and inward aspects in jurisprudence and law”. In addition to this dissertation, he also offered another dissertation, titled as inheritance with no inheritor, to get his fourth level degree, the highest level in the seminary school of Qom, which led to his success in attaining this highest level degree.
In the area of university, also, he has been teaching jurisprudence of judgement and jurisprudence of economy both at M.A. and Ph. D levels in Ayatollah Motahari and Imam Sadeq (A.S.) universities.
Membership in the Central Council of Combatant Clerics
He accepted the suggestion of effective members of society of combatant clerics such as Ayatollah Yazdi and Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani and was officially elected, by the members of the council, as one of the members of the central council of clerics’ society.
Presence and Performance in the Assembly of Experts
in 1385/ 2007, he run, with the recommendation of south Khorasan’s experts and on the behalf of Qom society of seminary teachers and the society of combatant clerics, his candidate for the fourth round of assembly of experts. He found his way to the assembly of experts by obtaining 80 percent of this province’s votes. Two years after his entrance to this assembly, he was elected as one of the members of directing board of the assembly and this post took until the end of the fourth assembly of experts.
At the board of directors, he was the responsible of administrative section at the secretariat of the assembly of experts and, also, he was in charge of Tehran’s office which is responsible of experts’ connections with different organizations. Becoming a member at the regulations commission of the assembly and the selected member of the committee of final declaration in all the sessions are some other responsibilities of Hujjat al-Islam wa al-Muslimin Raeisi in the fourth assembly of experts.
He has been a member and secretary of the research commission in the same assembly.
Fourth level of jurisprudential principles
M.A of private international law
Ph. D. in jurisprudence and principles of law from Ayatollah Motahari University
Teaching advanced jurisprudential texts, rules of jurisprudences of judgement and economy in Tehran’s seminaries and universities.
A. Under publication books
A book on an inheritance with no inheritor
A book on conflict between outward and inward aspects in jurisprudence and law
Expositions of rules of jurisprudence (judicial sector)
Expositions of rules of jurisprudence (economy sector)
Expositions of rules of jurisprudence (devotional sector)
History of development in inspection and supervision
B. Articles and Presentations
Variety of responsibility
Invalid sale and its types
Concept of mortgage
Mutual effects of economic and judicial decisions
Supervision and inspection in Islam
Justice and its effect on lifestyle
Managerial and Political Background
Conducting different judicial missions with Imam Khomeini’s (R.A.) decree in different parts of the world
Membership in the board of trustees of Imam Khomeini’s (R.A.) executive committee_ issue of Wali Faqih’s properties_ for ten years as appointed by the Supreme Leader’s decree
First vice presidency of the judiciary system for ten years
Presidency of country’s inspection organization for ten years
Revolution prosecutor of Tehran
First secretary of resuscitation staff of enjoying to good deeds and forbidding the evils of the country
Revolution prosecutor of Hamedan province
Membership in the country’s supreme board of selections
Cooperating in establishment of the offices of Islamic Republic party in south of Khorasan as ordered by Dr. Beheshti
Founder of Fatima Zahra (S.A.) seminary in Tehran’s Kouye Nasr
Astan Quds Razavi custodianship
Member of the supreme council of Khorasan Seminary by the Supreme Leader decree
Special attorney general for the clergymen as appointed by the Supreme Leader
Iran’s attorney general
Membership in assembly of experts’ directing board
Chairing of the supervision council on IRIB
Membership in the central council of combatant clerics in Tehran
South Khorasan representative in assembly of experts
Former Grand Custodian of AQR
Biography of Ayatollah Waiz Tabasi